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Largest natural forests in the world

largest natural forests in the world
Largest natural forests in the world

In the process of industrialization and modernization, the green on the earth has been increasingly taken away. However, in these days, a lot of huge forests still exist as the green lung for the planet. Following is the list of largest natural forests in the world.

Mindo-Nambillo Cloud Forest, Ecuador

Mindo – Nambillo is a cloud forest, humid and chilly forest that has the high humidity and coldness compared to other tropical forests. This forest is located in Ecuador with an area of 192 square kilometers and near the vast Amazon. Covering a large area and owning the diverse geology, the Mindo-Nambillo forest has the high biological diversity with over 1,600 different types of birds, amphibians and animals.

Mindo-Nambillo cloud forest
Mindo-Nambillo cloud forest

Kinabalu National Park – Malaysia

Kinabalu national park is the first national park of Malaysia and also the first site to be recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The area of the whole park is 754 square kilometers, which is larger than the area of Singapore. The park is surrounded by Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Southeast Asia. Kinabalu park is considered to be one of the most important ecological zones in the world with over 4,500 different species.

Kinabalu national park
Kinabalu national park

Daintree Forest, Australia

Surrounding the northeastern border of Queensland state and lying along the bank of the Daintree river, Daintree forest is the largest forest in Australia that covers an area of over 1,200 square kilometers. The Daintree tropical forest has been in existence for over 110 million years and considered the oldest tropical forest on the Earth. In terms of biodiversity, there are more than 90% of rats and butterflies and 10,000 other insect species living in this forest. Besides, many types of amphibians and birds take up residence here.

Daintree forest
Daintree forest

Xishuangbanna Tropical Rainforest, China

Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest is a part of Yunnan, China and covers an area of 2,402 square kilometers. It is one of the tropical monsoon rainforests in the best state of conservation in the world. This tropical rainforest contains at least 8 groups of plants, 58 species of which are considered to be rare. In terms of science, Xishuangbanna forest is of enormous significance because its rich flora is regarded as the important genebank.

Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest
Xishuangbanna tropical rainforest

Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh, India

Sandarbans has an area of more than 10,000 square kilometers, which makes up a large area of Bangladesh and a part of India and is located along Bengal Bay. Recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, Sundarbans is the largest mangrove in the world. Here there are about 64 types of plants, most of which are able to adapt to the wetland. In particular, Sundarbans is home to the Bengal tiger, the largest tiger that has been preserved in the world. In India, the Sundarbans is a national park, tiger and biosphere reserve. In Bangladesh, the Sundarbans is the protected forest.

Sundarbans forest
Sundarbans forest

Tongass Forest – North America

Tongass is a temperate rainforest located in the southeast of Alaska, USA and the largest forest in the United States with an area of 68,062 square kilometers. The forest is almost covered with red cedars and spruces and hemlocks. Due to its remote location, Tongass is home to some of the most precious plants and endangered species in the world. The entire Tongass is divided into 19 different wilderness reserves.

Tongass forest
Tongass forest

Valdivian temperate rainforest, South America

With an area of 248,100 square kilometers, Valdivian forest is larger than the total area of England and Northern Ireland. This forest encompasses a huge area on the western shore of the South America, Chile and a part of Argentina. The vegetation in Valdivian mainly includes low-bush and young ferns and coniferous trees. About 90% of plant species and 70% of animals in Valdivian are listed among precious and endangered species.

Valdivian temperate rainforest
Valdivian temperate rainforest

Congolese rainforest, Africa

Congolese rainforest has an area of 2,023,428 square kilometers and is a primeval forest of the Congolese river valley of Africa. It is also the second largest jungle in the world, ranked after the Amazon forest. More than 10,000 plant species have been discovered in the Congolese rainforest and 29% of them are typical indigenous species. There are over 1,000 species of birds, 500 species of mammals and 500 species of fish. Congolese rainforest is also a contributor to the balance of nature on the Earth. However, nowadays, Congolese forest is severely affected by the human.

Congolese rainforest
Congolese rainforest

The above-mentioned forests play a key role in regulating the global climate. However, these forests and ecosystems are being destroyed by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen and promote the awareness of forest protection throughout the world.

True Significance of Japanese Tea Ceremony

true significance of Japanese tea ceremony
True significance of Japanese tea ceremony

A lot of documentation on Japanese culture compiled by non-native writers almost introduces the Japanese tea ceremony as a traditional way of drinking tea in Japan. In fact, many people confuse Japanese tea ceremony with enjoying Japanese tea, leading to inaccurate comparisons of tea drinking and tea art of Japan. This article will show some basic knowledge of Japanese Tea Ceremony.

Japanese tea ceremony
Japanese tea ceremony

Brief History of Japanese Tea Ceremony

Tea drinking ceremony originated from southern China and ancient the north of Southeast Asia. In the eighth century (Nara period), tea was imported to Japan. However, the number of people know about tea is limited. The reason is that tea drinking is regarded as one of the luxurious forms of royal cuisine.

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At the beginning of the 13th century (Kamakura period), a Japanese enlightened monk of Rinzai school named Eisai (1141-1215) brought a type of powdered green tea called matcha from China to Japan.

history of Japanese tea ceremony
History of Japanese tea ceremony

As from the mid-fourteenth century (Muromachi period), drinking tea was widespread throughout Japan. The way of drinking tea of the Japanese is quite similar to the Chinese, mainly drinking tea combined with enjoying the scenery. In the areas of growing tea, the contests of drinking tea are annually held to select the good tea.

The late 15th century, the man named Murata Jukou (1423-1502), the student of the Buddhist priest called Ikyu (1394-1481) of Rinzai school established the first school of enjoying tea for toucha contest called wabicha, which is a school of morality and simplicity.

Japanese tea ceremony
Japanese tea ceremony

Responding to this concept, in the late 16th century (Azuchi Momoyama period), Senno Rikyu (1522-1591) blended tea with the Zen philosophy to form a school of making and drinking tea that is different from the normal way. The tea created by this school is called cha no yuu. The method of making and drinking cha no yuu gradually turns into an art, called sadou. Since then, this art has been improved and popularized and become a feature of the Japanese culture.

The subject of the Japanese Tea Ceremony

Subject of Japanese tea ceremony
Subject of Japanese tea ceremony

In terms of Japanese Tea ceremony, making tea and enjoying tea are two indispensable parts. The most important person of the tea ceremony is the tea maker. What the tea maker does during the process of making tea show his/her mind. This mind will make the tea making more standard and appealing to the participants of this ritual or not. The tea maker play the main role as a subject of the tea ceremony while the tea drinker is only the subordinate subject of a tea ceremony.

The object of the Japanese tea ceremony

In the Japanese tea ceremony, the taste of tea does not play a major role. The only tea used for this ritual is matcha green tea powder, which has the bitter taste and is in powder form. Tea just plays a minor role in the Japanese Tea Ceremony because the bitterness of tea is consistent with Zen philosophy that aimed at keeping off the luxuries, which will help to focus on the thinking of tea drinkers.

The object of the Japanese tea ceremony
The object of the Japanese tea ceremony

The main object of the Japanese tea ceremony is the process of making tea and the act of drinking tea. Both tea makers and tea drinkers do not pay much attention to the taste of tea. Although they are very respectful of this product, the actions of making and drinking tea are their main concern. They completely concentrate on the actions, blend together and are close to the rustic and simple nature that created by themselves in order to keep their mind calm. This calm helps to enhance the main focus on what they are interested in.

Object of Japanese tea ceremony
Object of Japanese tea ceremony

Another main object of the tea ceremony is the tools for making and drinking tea. Different from other luxurious equipment, the instruments for the Japanese Tea Ceremony are quite simple. These tools are made from bamboo, wood and terracotta in simple shapes and decorations as well. This also shows the influence of the philosophy of avoiding the luxury of Zen Buddhism.

Space for Japanese tea ceremony

Japanese tea ceremony is performed in a small space with the layout. The place of tea ceremony is called the tea room (Chashitsu), which is located in the quiet gardens. The Tea room is designed in the Japanese style (Washitsu) and mainly built from wood. The foundation is covered with tatami –  a type of mat. Normally, the entrance to the tea room is narrow and paved with large stones. The way to decorating the outside and the inside of the tea room is also not elaborate. Inside the room usually contains an ink wash painting or a piece of writing in calligraphy hung in the recess accompanied by an ikebana vase.

Japanese tea room
Japanese tea room

Conducting the tea ceremony in this scene with natural material shows that the tea ceremony is in harmony with Zen philosophy.

Conclusion

With the name of sadou that means tea ceremony, the Japanese tea ceremony is always understood in a simple way as “the way of drinking Japanese tea” or “Art of Japanese tea making and drinking.” Because the establishment is based on the Zen philosophy, the Japanese Tea Ceremony is aimed at expressing the Zen Buddhist philosophy.

Japanese tea ceremony - Zen Buddhist philosophy
Japanese tea ceremony – Zen Buddhist philosophy

According to Zen philosophy, man is a small universe and a part of in a huge universe – the natural world. Human life includes many unexplained things; therefore, in order to explain them, people have to make their minds harmonize with nature and not influenced by the surroundings. In conclusion, the true meaning of Japanese tea ceremony is the blend of human and nature through the actions of making and drinking tea.

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